Film & Movies
The “Snow White” that wasn’t: Why Disney took a pass on a Joe Papp production that would have had Linda Ronstadt starring as the Fairest in the Land
Now through February 7th (in honor of the 80th anniversary of the general release of the studio’s first full-length animated feature), Disney is presenting “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” at the El Capitan Theatre.
To help sell tickets to this extremely limited engagement (How limited? Just six days. Then the El Cap tosses The Fairest in the Land out on her fanny to make room for its Throwback Thursday presentation. Which – fittingly enough [given that the opening ceremonies for the Winter Olympics in PyeongChang are being held on Friday] is Disney’s 1993 sports comedy about the Jamaican bobsled team, “Cool Running”), this classic Hollywood movie palace is telling would-be ticket buyers that ” … Before the show, see Snow White live on stage!”
Copyright Disney Enterprises, Inc. All rights reserved
Now no disrespect for the obviously-talented-but-deliberately-anonymous (because that’s the Disney way) young woman that the El Capitan has hired to play the Little Princess out ahead of each of these 80th anniversary screenings of “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,” but you know what might make us all far more eager to attend this promoted pre-show? If the theater had hired a big name to play the title role. Like – say – 11-time Grammy Award winner Linda Ronstadt.
“But that’s crazy, Jim,” you say. “Ronstadt retired from performing back in 2011. And given that Linda was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in December 2012, it’s doubtful that she’ll ever sing again. Let alone play Disney’s version of Snow White.”
Sadly, all of the above is true. But you know what’s even sadder? 35 years ago this month, Broadway legend Joe Papp was actually negotiating with the Mouse House to try and make this happen.
A flyer hyping Linda Ronstadt’s 1971 appearance at Disneyland Park. Copyright Disney Enterprises, Inc. All rights reserved
Don’t believe me? Take a gander at this article from the February 18, 1983 edition of the Los Angeles Daily News:
Award-winning theater producer Joseph Papp is negotiating with the Walt Disney organization to acquire the legitimate theater rights to the 1937 film version of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The stage version would include the film’s original songs and would feature Linda Ronstadt in the leading role. The Papp-Ronstadt Snow White will be presented free of charge during the summer of 1983 in the Delacorte Theater in Central Park.
So what set this surreal set of circumstances in motion? Believe it or not, it was Papp’s acclaimed 1980 production of Gilbert & Sullivan’s comic opera, “The Pirates of Penzance” (Which – not-so-co-incidentally – was also originally presented at the Delacorte Theater in Central Park before it then transferred first to the Uris and then the Minskoff Theatre for a very profitable Broadway run).
What made this particular version of “Pirates of Penzance” such a sensation back in the 1980s was A) director Wilford Leach decided to really play up the comedy in this then-101 year-old comic opera and B) Papp’s decision to recruit stars to come play key roles in “Pirates” in order to this aged enterprise some added energy. Which is how Oscar winner Kevin Kline wound up being cast as the Pirate King (His swashbuckling / slapstick-infused take on this character resulted in Kline winning that year’s Tony for Best Actor in a Musical), teen idol / pop singer Rex Smith was hired to play Frederic and …
Linda Ronstadt in Universal Pictures’ 1983 movie version of “The Pirates of Penzance.” Copyright NBCUniversal. All rights reserved
… As for the casting of Mabel (i.e., one of the Major-General’s many daughters. To be specific, the one who gets to trill “Poor Wandering One”), Papp had a genuinely inspired idea. He reached out to Ronstadt (who had just released “Mad Love,” her seventh consecutive million selling album) and asked Linda if she’d like to take a break from selling out arenas all over the world and make her legitimate stage debut instead.
And as it turns out, Ronstadt was really ready to take a break from rock-n-roll. But when she showed up up to begin rehearsals of “The Pirates of Penzance,” her co-stars were genuinely startled to learn how little practical acting experience Linda actually had.
How little? The only time previous that Ronstadt had worked off of a script was May of 1980. Which was when Linda had flown to London to shoot an episode of “The Muppet Show.”
Linda Ronstadt and the cast of “The Muppet Show.” Copyright Disney Enterprises, Inc. All rights reserved
So – with so little experience when it came to lines & dialogue – how then Ronstadt then find her way when it came to the role of Mabel? She decided to base her performance in “The Pirates of Penzance” on what Linda once called ” … one of the most brilliant pieces of art in the twentieth century.” And that was Walt Disney’s “Snow White.”
“Mabel’s like a big cartoon and I guess I’m a cartoon character, too,” Ronstadt admitted in an August 1980 interview with Newsweek magazine. “I did (this show) for fun and I’m glad I did.”
And Joe – because he’d also had fun working with Linda – wanted to continue their collaboration. Which is why – given that Papp knew that Ronstadt was such a huge “Snow White” fan – began pursuing the stage rights for Disney’s first-ever full length animated feature. Figuring that – if he could persuade Mouse House execs to get onboard with this idea and then stage this production back at the Delacorte Theater in Central Park (i.e., a venue that this celebrated singer was already familiar with / comfortable with performing at) – there was just no way that Linda could then pass on this project.
Linda Ronstadt (far left) on stage at the Delacorte Theatre as Mabel with her sisters (far right) and their father, the Major-General (played by the late, great George Rose).
That was the plan as of February 1983. That the Public Theater’s proposed production of “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” would follow the “Pirates of Penzance” playbook. That rehearsals would begin sometime in the mid-summer, followed by a three week-long run at the Delacorte theater. Then – provided that the reviews were strong enough (more importantly, provided that Ronstadt was willing to continue in the role) – this new stage version of “Snow White” would then transfer to Broadway for an open-ended run.
But sometime over the next three months, Papp’s plan fell apart. Which is why Joe was then forced to put together another project for Linda. As New York Magazine reported in its May 9, 1983 issue:
Bob Jani, back in his Creative-Director-for-Walt-Disney-Productions days. Copyright Disney Enterprises, Inc. All rights reserved
And why exactly did Disney not give Papp permission to proceed with this seeming sure-fire project? To borrow a phrase from Facebook, it’s complicated.
Long story short: Disney entertainment legend Bob Jani (who had left the Company in 1978 to go help revive Radio City Music Hall’s “Magnificent Christmas Spectacular.” As a reward for bringing that NYC holiday favorite back from the very brink of extinction, Jani was then named president of Radio City Music Hall Productions. Which meant that Bob was now in charge of Radio City’s annual Christmas pageant as well as charged with creating other new stage productions that would then compel tourists as well as New Yorkers to come visit this historic entertainment venue on a far more regular basis) persuaded his old Mouse House bosses to award Radio City the stage rights to “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” in early 1979.
You see, Jani remembered that – back in August of 1969 – the St. Louis Municipal Opera Association had (with the cooperation of Walt Disney Productions executives) put together a trial stage adaptation of “Snow White.” This show then ran for two weeks at this giant outdoor venue (And when I say “giant,” I mean GIANT. The St. Louis MUNY has more than 12,000 seats). Once production of this trial stage version of “Snow White” wrapped, all rights then reverted to Walt Disney Productions. And the Company could then do what it wanted with this script.
Bob knew that the stage version of “Snow White” that had been presented in the more-than-12,000 seat MUNY back in 1969 could easily be adapted to play at the 6,015 seat Radio City Musical Hall in 1979. More to the point, once Radio City’s stage version of “Snow White” was mounted, this $750,000 extravaganza could then be toured around the country. With the idea being that this touring show would then generate funds that Radio City Music Hall Productions could then funnel into production of new shows for the mothership.
That was the plan as of October 14, 1979. Which was Jani told the New York Times that – out ahead of the very first performance of Disney’s “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” at Radio City Music Hall – come November, this 90 minute-long musical fairytale (which was presented without an intermission) will then …
… begin a national tour — definitely scheduled through June — of Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco, the proceeds of which, Music Hall executives hope, will help offset the high cost of mounting the production. Plans to visit other locations (including, possibly, Great Britain), which could keep “Snow White” on the road until Christmas 1980, are still being formulated.
Ad promoting “Snow White” ‘s stop in Washington, D.C. during its national tour.
It was Bob’s desire to tour Radio City’s version of “Snow White” for several years that supposedly tripped up Joe’s plan to present a brand-new stage version of this Disney animated classic in Central Park with Linda Ronstadt. Though this elaborate stage show did make stops at the National Theater in Washington D.C. …
… and Chicago’s Arie Crown Theatre …
… before it then returns to Radio City Music Hall for an encore engagement that ran through March 9, 1980, the remainder of this expensive-to-mount traveling stage show’s proposed national tour then became a “to-be-named-later” affair. Which is why – in February of 1983 – Walt Disney Productions just wasn’t in a position to award Joe Papp the stage rights to “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.” At that time, Radio City Music Hall still held those rights. Largely because (in theory, anyway) Radio City Music Hall Productions could pull all of its “Snow White” sets & costumes out of mothballs and then send that show back out on tour.
What had further complicated the “Snow White” stage situation was that – in October of 1981 – Walt Disney Productions had signed a development deal with veteran Broadway producers Elizabeth I. McCann and Nelle Nugent. With the idea being that the talented team behind Tony Award winners like the 1978 revival of “Dracula,” 1979’s Best Play honoree “The Elephant Man,” and “Morning’s at Seven” (Which took the Tony for Best Revival in 1980) would then find shows that Mouse House could invest in. Given that it would have been somewhat awkward for Disney to enter into a brand-new business arrangement with Joe Papp and the Public Theater so soon after signing its high-profile development deal with McCann and Nugent (The worry in-house was that it would send a message to the Broadway community that Mickey had lost confidence in Elizabeth & Nelle. Which might then damage the reputation of McCann & Nugent’s then-just-getting-started-film-and-television-development production company), Disney opted to stay true to these two.
What’s the old adage that Molly Ivins popularized? You Got To Dance with Them Brung You? That’s what Walt Disney Productions wound up doing back in the late Winter / early Spring. Even though the Joe Papp / Linda Ronstadt “Snow White”-in-Central-Park deal was obviously so tempting (More to the point, it would have given the Company some creative heat & credibility at a time when Disney really needed it), Mouse House officials opted to honor the deals that they’d previously made with Bob Jani, Elizabeth McCann & Nelle Nugent and then took a pass on the Papp project.
Gary Morris and Linda Ronstadt in “La Boheme”
So Joe proceeded with his back-up project for Linda. Which was having her play the role of Mimi in the Public Theater’s production of “La Boheme.” When this eagerly anticipated show finally premiered in late November of 1984, the reviews were respectful but not exactly enthusiastic. As the New York Times put it, “… Miss Ronstadt herself knows that she’s not at home with Puccini – and one can only admire the bravery that allows her to forge ahead anyway, reason be damned.”
Meanwhile over at the Mouse House, a new management team had been put in place in late September of that same year. And Michael Eisner never forgot about what Linda Ronstadt had said about “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” (i.e., that this animated feature was ” … one of the most brilliant pieces of art in the twentieth century” ).
Which is why – in the Fall of 1986 – when The Walt Disney Company was planning a year-long celebration of the 50th anniversary of the release of “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,” Eisner insisted that the Company reach out to Ronstadt. Give Linda the opportunity to finally sing those songs that she’d been denied when the Mouse House’s previous management team had refused to award Joe Papp the rights to stage “Snow White” in Central Park.
Ronstadt readily agreed when Disney’s representatives reached out. More to the point, the Mouse really pulled out the stops when it came to producing this portion of the “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Golden Anniversary Special” (which aired on NBC on May 18, 1989). They actually shot this sequence after hours at Disneyland. With Linda artfully posed by the wishing well in the Snow White Grotto as she sang “Someday My Prince Will Come.”
And given how well that performance was received … Well, when Walt Disney Records wanted to put together a recording honoring the 50th anniversary of the release of “Cinderella,” Ronstadt was one of the very first performers that they reached out to. And Linda’s performance of “A Dream is A Wish Your Heart Makes” is one of the true highlights of 2002’s “The Music of Disney’s Cinderella.”
And speaking of dreams … Even though anyone today can see what Radio City Musical Hall’s version of “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” looked like (HBO video taped this stage production towards the end of its run at Radio City. The subsequent TV special originally aired on this Pay TV channel on May 19, 1980. A year later, Walt Disney Home Video made “Snow White Live at Radio City Music Hall” available for purchase on VHS & Betamax) …
… the Joe Papp / Linda Ronstadt version of “Snow White” remains something that theater fans continue to dream and/or speculate about. The closest approximation that we will ever probably get to what this Delacorte Theater production might have been like is the 2012 revival of “Into the Woods.” This Shakespeare in the Park production featured all sorts of modern day Disney favorites (EX: Donna Murphy – the voice of Mother Gothel from 2010’s “Tangled” [EDITOR’S NOTE: How bizarre must it have been for Murphy – having just voiced Rapunzel’s antagonist for that Walt Disney Animation Studios film – to now be playing scenes with that exact same character in this Sondheim musical?]; Amy Adams – Princess Giselle from 2007’s “Enchanted” as the Baker’s wife; and Glenn Close – Cruella de Vil from 1996’s “101 Dalmatians” & 2000’s “101 Dalmatians” as the Voice of the Giant) opened (just as “Pirates of Penzance” did in 1980 and as just as “Snow White” was originally scheduled to do in 1983) in early August.
And as Ben Brantley recounted in his review of this “Into the Woods” revival for The New York Times, “Central Park at night, when the moon rises and the wild things roam, sounded like the ideal and inevitable setting for stories of nature enchanted.”
Which – admittedly – isn’t quite as poetic as what the Magic Mirror says in Disney’s “Snow White” (i.e., “Over the seven jeweled hills, beyond the seventh fall, in the cottage of the seven dwarfs, dwells Snow White, fairest one of all”). But it ain’t bad.
Snow White and her prince explore NYC’s Central Park as part of a November 2017 photo shoot. Copyright Disney Enterprises, Inc. All rights reserved
If you like these sorts of hyper-detailed Mouse-related stories, then you should definitely check out Disney Dish & Marvel Us Disney (two podcasts that Jim participates in). You’ll find hours of great listening over at Bandcamp & iTunes. Be sure and support these shows by subscribing.
Film & Movies
Will “Metro” – that “Cars” Spin-Off Which Disney Developed – Ever Get Made?
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First came “Cars” in June of 2006.
This Pixar Animation Studios production did so well (Of all the high grossing films released that year, “Cars” was No. 2 at the box office. Only “Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest” sold more tickets in 2006) that Disney execs asked John Lasseter to develop a sequel.
“Cars 2” came out in June of 2011 and also did quite well at the box office (It took the No. 7 slot in the Top-Ten-for-ticket-sales that year). Which is why Disney then asked Pixar to prep a follow-up film.
“Cars 3” would eventually arrive in theaters in June of 2017. But in the meantime, Disney & Pixar began exploring the idea of expanding this film franchise. Largely because the amount of money that the Mouse was making off of the sales of “Cars” -related merchandise was … To be blunt here, mind boggling.
Don’t believe me? Well, then consider this: In just the first five years that the “Cars” film franchise existed, global retail sales of merchandise related to these Pixar movies approached $10 billion. That’s billion with a “B.”
So is it any wonder that – while Pixar was still trying to get a handle on what “Cars 3” would actually be about – the Mouse (through its DisneyToon Studios arm. Which produced home premieres like those “TinkerBell” movies) began actively looking into ways to expand this lucrative franchise?
“Planes” – The First “Cars” Spin-Off
The first “Cars” spin-off to arrive in the marketplace was “Planes.” This Klay Hall film (which was set in “The World Above Cars”) was released theatrically in August of 2013, with the Blu-ray & DVD version of “Planes” hitting store shelves in November of that same year.
“Planes: Fire and Rescue” followed in the Summer of 2014. And while a “Planes 3” was definitely put in development (At the Disney Animation panel at the 2017 D23 Expo, John Lasseter not only shared a clip from this film. But he also revealed that this project – which, at that time, was entitled “Space” – was slated to be released theatrically in April of 2019) … This animated feature was abruptly cancelled when DisneyToon Studios was shuttered in June of 2018.
But wait. There’s more … In addition to the aborted “Planes 3,” Disney had other “Cars” spin-offs in the works. One was supposed to be built around boats. While yet another was supposed to have shined a spotlight on trucks.
“Metro” – The World Below Cars
And then there was “Metro.” Which was supposed to have been set in the inner city and focused on what went on in “The World Below Cars.” As in: Down in the subway system.
Just in the past week or so, a few pieces of concept art for “Metro” have surfaced online. Giving us all an intriguing look at what might have been. These preproduction paintings suggest that this “Cars” spin-off would be far grittier than … Say … the sort of adventures that Lightning McQueen & Mater would typically have out in Radiator Springs.
That said, it’s worth noting here that – just in the past year or so – we’ve seen Disney & Pixar attempt to expand the turf that these two characters could comfortably cover. Take – for example — “Cars on the Road,” that nine-part series which debuted on Disney+ back in September of last year. This collection of animated shorts literally sent Lightning McQueen & Mater off on a road trip.
So who knows?
Given that Bob Iger (at Disney’s quarterly earnings call held earlier this week) revealed that the Company now has sequels in the works for “Frozen,” “Toy Story,” and “Zootopia” … Well, is it really all that far-fetched to think that – at some point further on down the road – Disney & Pixar will put yet another sequel to “Cars” in the works?
One that might send Lightning McQueen & Mater off to explore the gritty inner-city world that we glimpsed in all that concept art for “Metro,” that never-produced “Cars” spin-off.
Time will tell.
Film & Movies
Park’s Closed: “Vacation ’58” Inspired by Seasonal Closing at Disneyland
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This year is the 30th anniversary of the release of National Lampoon’s “Vacation.” Warner Bros. released this Harold Ramis movie to theaters back in July of 1983.
John Hughes adapted his own short story (i.e., “Vacation ’58,” which had run in “National Lampoon” magazine less than four years earlier. The September 1979 issue, to be exact) to the screen.
Key difference between “Vacation ‘58” and “National Lampoon’s Vacation” is that the movie follows the Griswold family on their epic journey to Walley World. Whereas the short story that Hughes wrote (i.e., “Vacation ‘58”) follows an unnamed family to a different theme park. The actual Disneyland in Anaheim.
Let me remove any doubt here. Here’s the actual opening line to John Hughes’ “Vacation ’58.”
What’s kind of intriguing about the plot complication that sets Act 3 of “National Lampoon’s Vacation” in motion (i.e., that – just as the Grisworld arrive at Walley World [after a harrowing cross-country journey] – they discover that “America’s favorite family fun park” is closed for two weeks for cleaning and to make repairs) is that … Well, it’s based on something that Hughes learned about the real Disneyland. That – from 1958 through 1985 [a total of 27 years] the Happiest Place on Earth used to close two days a week during the slower times of year. To be specific, Mondays & Tuesday in the Fall & early Winter as well as in the late Winter / early Spring.
Want to stress here: Two days a week versus the two weeks each year in “National Lampoon’s Vacation.”
When Did Disneyland Start Opening 7-Days a Week?
It wasn’t ‘til February 6, 1985 that Disneyland Park formally switched to being a seven-day-a-week operation. This was just four months after Michael Eisner had become Disney’s new CEO. And part of his effort to get as much profit as possible out of Disney’s theme parks.
Which is a trifle ironic. Given that – back in December of 1958 – Disneyland deliberately switched over to an open-five-days-a-week-during-the-off-season schedule in an effort to get Anaheim’s operating costs under control. But I’m getting ahead of myself here.
Early Disneyland Operations – Ticket Books and Ticket Booths
So let’s start with the obvious: When Disneyland Park first opened in July of 1955, there had never been one of these before. So the Happiest Place on Earth was a learn-as-you-go operation.
So things that are now closely associated with a visit to Disneyland back in the day (EX: Having to purchase a book of tickets before you entered that theme park. Which then pushed Guests to go seek out various A, B, C & D Ticket attractions around the grounds) … Well, that form of admission media didn’t come online ‘til October 11, 1955. Some three months after Disneyland Park first open.
Prior to this, if you wanted to go on a ride at Disneyland, you had to first get on line at one of the Park’s omni-present ticket booth. Once you got to the front of that line, you then had to open your wallet and purchase enough tickets for your entire family to enjoy that attraction. Only then could you go over to the actual attraction and get in line for that experience. Where – just before boarding that ride – you then surrendered that ticket.
Disney Parks Getting Too Expensive
Interesting side note: It’s now an established part of the on-going Disney theme park narrative that “Going to the Parks has just gotten to be too expensive and/or complicated,” what with the institution of Lightning Lane and then forcing people to use virtual queues if they want to experience newer attractions at the Parks like “Guardians of the Galaxy: Cosmic Rewind” at Epcot or “Mickey & Minnie’s Runaway Railway” out in Anaheim.
Walt Fixes “Expensive” Impression
What fascinates me about the parallels here is that … When Walt began to see the same thing bubble up in press coverage for his new family fun park (i.e., All of those Summer-of-1955 stories in newspapers & magazines about how expensive it was to visit Disneyland. How – whenever a Guest visited this place – they were constantly being forced to repeatedly open their wallet), his immediate reaction was “We need to fix this now. I don’t want people coming away from their visit to Disneyland with this impression.” And by October 11, 1955 (less than 3 months after Disneyland Park first opened), they had a fix in place.
Lightning Lane – Raising Prices
Counter this with Lightning Lane. Which was first introduced at Walt Disney World in October of 2021. Which has gotten miserable press since Day One (and is a large part of people’s growing perception that it’s just gotten too expensive to take their family on vacation to WDW). Disney Corporate knows about this (hence the number of times questions about this perception has bubbled up in recent surveys that Resort has sent out).
And what does the Company do with this info? During the 2022 holiday season, Disney Parks actually raised the prices on individual Lightning Lanes for popular attractions like “Rise of the Resistance” to $22 a person.
Conclusion: Disney knows about all the bad press the Resort is getting lately but doesn’t care. They like all of the short-term money that Lightning Lane is pulling in right now and are deliberately overlooking all of the long-term implications of the narrative getting out there that going to WDW is getting too expensive.
“Spend Dollars to Get People Back” – Disney Cutting Corners on Projects
Which reminds me of something Walt once said when an Imagineer suggested that the Company could save a few bucks by cutting corners on a particular project: “If people ever stop coming to the Park because they think we cut corners on a project, the few cents we saved ultimately aren’t going to matter. We’re then going to have to spend dollars to get those people back.”
That’s what worries me about Disney’s current situation. What’s the Company ultimately going to have to do convince those people who now think that a trip to WDW has just gotten too expensive for the family to come back.
Disneyland Parking Closing on Mondays & Tuesdays
Back to Disneyland Park closing on Mondays & Tuesdays during the off-season … When did this practice start? Let me share something that I just found in the 1958 edition of Walt Disney Productions’ annual report. This document (which was published on December 23, 1958) states that:
So – reading between the lines here – in Disneyland’s second year of operation (July 1956 – June 1957), the folks down in Anaheim experimented with keeping Walt’s family fun park open six days a week during the slower times of the year. Which – I’m told – resulted in all sort of angry people at the entrance of Disneyland’s parking lot. Who had to drive down to Anaheim for the day to experience the Happiest Place on Earth only to find said place closed.
Okay. So for Disneyland’s third year of operation (July 1957 – June 1958) on Walt’s orders, Disneyland is then kept open seven days a week all year long. Which proves to be a problem on the off-season, given that there are days in the late Fall / early Spring when there are more Cast Members working in the Park than there are Guests coming through the turnstiles.
Which explains this line in the 1958 version of Walt Disney Productions’ annual report. Which – again – I remind you was published on December 23rd of that year:
So did this change in the way that Disneyland Park ultimately operated off-season ultimately work out? Let’s jump ahead to the 1959 version of Walt Disney Productions’ annual report. In that document (which was also published on December 23rd of that year) states that:
Making it Right for the Disneyland Hotel
Okay. So this change in the way that Disneyland Park operated during the off-season made things easier for Walt and Disney’s book-keepers back in Burbank. But what about Jack Wrather, the guy that Walt went to back in the Late Winter / Early Spring of 1955 and begged & pleaded for Wrather to build a hotel right next to Disneyland Park?
What happened to the Disneyland Hotel in late 1958 / early 1959 when – in the off-season – Disneyland Park goes to just a five-day-a-week operating schedule? At this point, the Disneyland Hotel is the largest hotel in all of Orange County with over 300 rooms.
It’s at this point that Walt personally reaches out to Jack and says “I know, I know. This operational change at the Park is going to affect your bottom line at the Hotel. Don’t fret. I’m definitely going to make this worth your while.”
Extending the Monorail to the Disneyland Hotel
And Walt followed through on that promise. In June of 1961, he extended Disneyland’s monorail system by a full 2 & a half miles so that this futuristic transportation system rolled right up to the Disneyland Hotel’s front door. Which was a perk that no other hotel in Orange County had.
And just in case you’re wondering: The cost of extending Disneyland’s monorail system over to the Disneyland Hotel was $1.9 million (That’s $19 million in 2023 money).
Magic Kingdom Golf Course at Disneyland Hotel
That very same year, Walt had some of his staff artists design a miniature golf course that could then be built on the grounds of the Disneyland Hotel. This kid-friendly area (called the Magic Kingdom Golf Course) featured elaborately themed holes with recreations of attractions that could be found right next door at Disneyland Park.
- Hole No. Three was Sleeping Beauty Castle
- Hole No. Five was Matterhorn Mountain
Other holes featured recreations of popular Disneyland attractions of the 1960s. Among them the TWA Moonliner, the Submarine Voyage, the Painted Desert from Frontierland (this is the area Guests traveled through when they experienced Disneyland”s “Mine Train thru Nature’s Wonderland” attraction), Tom Sawyer Island, the Fort in Frontierland, not to mention Skull Rock as well as Monstro the Whale from Disneyland’s Fantasyland.
This area was specially illuminated for night-time play. Which meant that the Magic Kingdom Golf Course at the Disneyland Hotel could operate from 10 a.m. in the morning ‘til 10 p.m. a night seven days a week.
Additional Disneyland Hotel Expansion and Offerings
It’s worth noting here that – from the moment the monorail was connected to The Disneyland Hotel – that hotel achieved 100% occupancy. Which is why – even after Disneyland Park switched to a 5-day-a-week operating schedule during the off-season – Disneyland Hotel launched into an aggressive expansion plan. With its 11 story-tall Sierra Tower breaking ground in 1961 (it opened the following year in September of 1962). Not to mention adding all sort of restaurants & shops to the area surrounding that hotel’s Olympic-sized pool.
All of which came in handy during those Mondays & Tuesdays during the Winter Months when people were staying at the Disneyland Hotel and had nowhere to go on those days when the Happiest Place on Earth was closed.
It’s worth noting here that the Disneyland Hotel (with Walt’s permission, by the way) on those days when Disneyland was closed would offer its Guests the opportunity to visit Knott’s Berry Farm as well as Universal Studios Hollywood. A Gray Line Bus would pull up in front of that hotel several times a day offering round-trip transportation to both of those Southern California attractions.
Likewise the Japanese Village and Deer Park over Buena Park. It was a different time. Back when Disney prided itself in being a good neighbor. Back when the Mouse didn’t have to have ALL of the money when it came to the Southern California tourism market. When there was plenty to go around for everyone.
Walley World Shooting Locations
And back to “National Lampoon’s Vacation”… The Walley World stuff was all shot at two Southern California attractions.
The scenes set in the parking lot at Walley World as well as at the entrance of that fictious theme park were shot in the parking lot & entrance of Santa Anita Race Track (Horse Track).
Any scene that’s supposed to be inside of the actual Walley World theme park was shot at Six Flags Magic Mountain.
Film & Movies
“Build It” – How the Swiss Family Treehouse Ended up in Disneyland
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Things get built at the Disney Theme Parks – but not always for the reasons that you might think.
Case in point: The Swiss Family Treehouse, which first opened at Disneyland Park back in November of 1962.
Swiss Family Robinson – 1960 Disney Film
Back then, Walt Disney Studios just had a hit film that was based on Johann David Wyss’ famous adventure novel of 1812. And at that time, Walt was justly proud of this project.
Out ahead of the release of this Ken Annakin film (Walt’s go-to director in the 1950s), Walt talked up this project in the Company’s annual report for 1959, saying that Swiss Family Robinson is …
Okay. Walt may have been overselling things a little here.
But when Disney’s version of Swiss Family Robinson finally arrived in theaters in December of 1960, it did quite well at the box office. It was No. 4 at the box office that year, behind “Spartacus,” “Psycho,” and “Exodus.”
And one of the main reasons that this Walt Disney Productions release did so well at the box office that year was … Well, Swiss Family Robinson looked great.
It had all of this lush shot-on-location footage (Though – to be fair here – I guess we should mention that this movie’s interiors were shot over in London at Pinewood Studios). One of the sequences from this Disney film that people most fondly remember is that montage where the Robinsons salvage what they can of their wrecked ship, the Swallow, and then use that same material to construct this amazing treehouse on an uninhabited island off the shore of New Guinea.
The Swiss Family. Robinson Tree was Real
By the way, the tree that appears in this Disney film is real. John Howell – who was the art director on “Swiss Family Robinson” – was out scouting locations for this movie in 1958. He had stopped work for the day and drinking with friends at a cricket match. When – out of the corner of his eye (through a gap in the fence that surrounded this cricket pitch) – John spied this beautiful Samaan tree with a huge 200 foot-wide canopy of leaves.
It’s still there, by the way. If you ever want to journey to the town of Goldsborough on the Caribbean island of Tobago.
Success at the Movies – Helping Disneyland Attendance
Anyway … Like I said, Disney’s movie version of Swiss Family Robinson comes out in December of 1960 and does quite well at the box office (Fourth highest grossing film of the year domestically). Walt keenly remembers what happened when he last built an attraction at Disneyland that was based on a Ken Annakin film (Matterhorn Bobsleds inspired by Third Man on the Mountain). 1959 was Disneyland’s greatest year attendance-wise. Largely because so many people came out to the Park that Summer to experience Disneyland’s heavily hyped brand-new attractions – which included the Matterhorn Bobsleds.
The Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland
The Matterhorn at Disneyland was largely inspired by research that the Studio did in Zermatt, Switzerland in late 1957 / early 1958 out ahead of the location shooting that was done for Third Man on the Mountain – which officially got underway in June of 1958).
There’s a famous story about the origin of the Matterhorn-at-Disneyland project. Walt was over in Switzerland for the start of shooting on Third Man on the Mountain in 1958 and evidently really liked what he saw. So be bought a postcard of the actual Matterhorn and then mailed it to Dick Irvine (who – at that time – was the Company’s lead Imagineer). Beyond Dick’s address at WDI, Walt reportedly only wrote two words on this postcard.
And those words supposedly were “Build this.”
It’s now the Spring of 1961 and attendance at Disneyland Park has actually fallen off from the previous year by 200,000 people. (You can read all about this in Walt Disney Productions’ annual report for 1961. Which was published on December 14th of that year. There’s a full scan of that annual report over on DisneyDocs.net). And Walt now wants to turn that attendance deficit around.
So what spurred Disneyland’s attendance surge in the Summer of 1959 was Walt pumping $6 million into the place for the construction of new attractions (Matterhorn Bobsleds, Submarine Voyage, & Monorail). So that’s now the plan for 1962 & 1963. Only this time around, it’ll be $7 million worth of new attractions. More to the point, since Disneyland’s 1959 expansion project was largely focused on Tomorrowland … This time around, the work will largely be focused on the other side of the Park. To be specific, Frontierland & Adventureland.
Attendance had been dropping on the Jungle River Cruise attraction because it was largely unchanged from when Disneyland Park first opened back in July of 1955.
There’s a famous story of Walt observing a Mom pulling her kid away from the entrance of the “Jungle Cruise.” Saying words to the effect “We’ve already seen that ride. We went on it the last time we went to Disneyland.” This is what then inspired Disney to develop the practice of plussing the attractions at his theme parks.
This was what led Walt to bring Marc Davis over to WED from Feature Animation in October of 1960 and effectively say “Help me make Disneyland better. Let’s look for ways to make the rides there funnier. Better staged.” This is when Marc came up with the idea for the Sacred Elephant Bathing Pool and the Africa Veldt sequences for “The Jungle Cruise.” Not to mention the Trapped Safari.
How the Trapped Safari Vignette Ended Up in “The Jungle Cruise”
Interesting story about that vignette that Marc created for “The Jungle Cruise.” It originally wasn’t supposed to be part of that ride. Guests were supposed to see it alongside the side of the tracks as they rode the Santa Fe & Disneyland Railroad from Main Street Station over to Frontierland. The Trapped Safari was basically supposed to be something that made Guests think “Ooh, I need to get over to Adventureland while I’m here at the Park and go check out that new, improved version of the Jungle River Cruise that everyone’s talking about.”
That was the original plan, anyway. But as soon as Walt saw Marc’s art for the Trapped Safari, he basically said “That’s too good a gag to waste on the people who are riding Disneyland’s train. That’s gotta go inside of the actual Jungle Cruise.” So – at Walt’s insistence – the Trapped Safari then became the tag gag for the African Veldt section of that Adventureland attraction.
In fact, Walt so loved this gag that – after the Africa Veldt section first opened at Disneyland Park in June of 1964 – he actually made the Imagineers go back in this portion of that Adventureland attraction and restage it. Build up the cave that was behind that pride of lions which was watching over that sleeping zebra so that the Trapped Safari would then have a stronger reveal. Would get a bigger reaction / stronger laugh largely because Guests now wouldn’t see the Trapped Safari until they then floated by the lion’s cave.
Draining Jungle River Cruise and Rivers of America
Anyway … Now what made this redo / expansion of the Jungle River Cruise complicated is that this Adventureland attraction shared a water system with the Rivers of America (Guests who were headed to Disneyland’s old Chicken Plantation Restaurant for lunch or dinner used to have to walk over a bridge in Frontierland. Under which flowed the water that traveled from the Jungle River Cruise into the Rivers of America).
If the Jungle Cruise was being drained for months so that the Imagineers could then install the Sacred Elephant Bathing Pool sequence in that Adventureland attraction, that meant the Rivers of America had to be drained as well.
The Rivers of America were now going to be dry for months at a time from January of 1962 through June of that same year, this is when the Imagineers decided to tackle two projects that were well below Disneyland’s waterline – which was digging out the basement space in New Orleans Square (which was originally supposed to house the walk-thru tour version of “Pirates of the Caribbean”) as well as carving out that below-grade space over at the Haunted Mansion. Which was going to be necessary for the two elevators that would then make that attraction’s “stretching room” scenes possible.
While this work was being done along the shore of the Rivers of America, over towards the entrance of Adventureland, the Imagineers were reconfiguring that restaurant that faced out towards Disneyland’s Hub. They were using the temporary closure of the Jungle Cruise to revamp that operation. Carving out the space for the Tahitian Terrace as well as the Enchanted Tiki Room.
As you can see by all of the projects that I’ve just described – this was a hugely complex addition to the Parks with lots of moving parts.
This redo of Adventureland & Frontierland (which then set the stage for Disneyland’s New Orleans Square) was moving through its final design phase – the Imagineers were startled when Walt pointed to the very center of this incredibly ambitious $7 million construction project (the very spot where Adventureland bumped up against Frontierland) and said:
“Build It” – Swiss Family Treehouse in Disneyland
It wasn’t that easy.
The Imagineers explained “But Walt. That’s the piece of land that the pipe which connects the Jungle Cruise and the Rivers of America runs through. We’d have to rip that up and then reroute that water system.”
Walt said “I don’t care. Build it.”
The Imagineers then said “But Walt. If we built a Swiss Family Treehouse in the Park … Well, that then means a steep set of stairs first going up into that tree and then a second steep set of stairs coming down out of that tree. People aren’t going to like doing all of that climbing.”
Walt said “You’re wrong. Build it.”
Imagineers continued “An attraction like that’s only going to appeal to kids. And we’ve already got Tom Sawyer Island across the way.”
Walt “ Again, you’re wrong. Build it.
So that’s what the Imagineers did. Not happily, I might add. Because the concrete foundation that supported this six ton structure had to go down some 42 feet … Well, that totally screwed up the water system that previously connected Disneyland’s Jungle River Cruise to the Rivers of America.
And as for those steep sets of stairs … While work was underway on this 70-foot-tall faux tree, Walt persuaded Betty Taylor (who was playing Sue Foot Sue over at the Golden Horseshoe at that time) to come over to the Swiss Family Treehouse construction site one afternoon. Betty was wearing a dress and high heels at the time. But she & Walt put on hard hats. And then the two of them made multiple trips up & down the stairs that had already been installed in & around Disneyland’s Swiss Family Treehouse. Just so Walt could then be certain that this attraction’s stairways weren’t too steep. More importantly, that they’d also be safe for ladies who were wearing skirts & dressed in heels to use.
The Opening of Swiss Family Treehouse at Disneyland
This 70-foot-tall faux tree (with its 80 foot-wide canopy of 300,000 pink plastic leaves) opened just in time for Thanksgiving of 1962. John Mills (the male lead of Disney’s “Swiss Family Robinson” film) was on hand for the dedication of this Adventureland attraction. FYI: He brought along his daughter, Halley (As in Halley Mills, the star of Disney’s “Pollyana” and “The Parent Trap”).
There’s this great 3-minutes-and-41-second video over on YouTube that shows Walt leading the Mills family (John, Halley & Mary Mills, John’s wife) around Disneyland’s Swiss Family Treehouse in the Fall of 1962. You can see Disney proudly showing off the elaborate water wheel system at the heart of this Adventureland attraction, which send 200 gallons of water high up into that faux tree.
How Much Did it Cost to Build the Swiss Family Treehouse at Disneyland?
Disneyland spent $254,900 on the construction of that theme park’s version of Swiss Family Treehouse. Which the Imagineers (back then, anyway) felt was money wasted. Because no one was ever going to climb up the 68 steps that then led to the three rooms in this Adventureland attraction (The parents bedroom, the boys bedroom [up in the crow’s next] and then the common area / kitchen / dining room) and then the 69 steps back down to the ground.
This is where the Imagineers were wrong.
Don’t Bet Against Walt – Success of Swiss Family Treehouse
Swiss Family Treehouse quickly became one of the more popular attractions in the Park. Back then, this Adventureland attraction was a C Ticket (35 cents apiece). And since it only took three Disneyland employees to safely staff & operate the Treehouse (i.e., one person to take tickets at the entrance, a second staffer patrolling upstairs in the tree to make sure the Guests were behaving themselves / not touching the props, and then a third Cast Member down by the exit making sure that Guests aren’t sneaking up the back stairs to experience the Swiss Family Treehouse without first surrendering a C Ticket), it also became one of the more profitable attractions in the Park.
200 people up in the tree at any one time. 1200 people an hour. Killer views of New Orleans Square construction / the Jungle Cruise ride just below.
Oh, and that only appeal to kids thing? Out of every four Guests who came through the turnstile / surrounded that 35 cent C ticket, only one was a kid under 10. The other three were adults.
To be specific here: Once construction of Disneyland’s Swiss Family Treehouse was complete in the Fall of 1962, it only cost $21,000 to staff & operate annually. An additional $16,000 to maintain each year. In 1965, this Adventureland Attraction – even after taking those costs into consideration – still managed to turn a profit of $313,000.
Long story short: It was never a smart thing to bet against Walt. At least when it came to how popular an attraction would be with Guests (The Mickey Mouse Club Circus fiasco of the holiday season of 1955 being the exception, of course).
Ken Annakin – Film Director
Sadly, the Imagineers weren’t able to base any other theme park attractions on Ken Annakin movies. “Swiss Family Robinson” was the very last film that he directed for Disney Studios.
Annakin went on to direct several very popular family films in the 1960s & 1970s, among them “Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines” and “The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking.” And the Walt Disney Company went out of its way to recognize Ken’s contribution to the overall success of Disney Studio & the Company’s theme parks by naming him a Disney Legend in 2002.
Sadly, Ken passed away at his home in Beverly Hills back in April of 2009 at the ripe old age of 94. Worth noting here that – in the late 1960s / early 1970s – when Walt Disney Animation Studios was fumbling around for an idea for a project to tackle after “The Aristocats” (That was the last animated feature that Walt Disney personally put into production / greenlit) – someone asks that classic question “What would Walt do?”
And in this case, the thinking was … Walt really liked those live-action movies that Ken Annakin directed for the Studio. Maybe we should look at those. So they then screened the very first movie that Ken directed for Disney, which was “The Story of Robin Hood and his Merrie Men” from 1952. And since people in Feature Animation thought that that was a pretty solid story … Well, that’s how we wound up with Disney’s animated version of “Robin Hood” in November of 1973.
New Robin Hood on Disney+?
Back in April of 2020, Disney announced that it was working on a CG version of Disney’s 1973 hand-drawn version of “Robin Hood.” Which is eventually supposed to show up on Disney+. Carlos Lopez Estrada had been signed to helm this film. Kari Granlund was writing the screenplay for this “Robin Hood” reboot. An Justin Springer, who helped get “Tron: Legacy” off the ground back in 2010, would be producing.
So the Ken Annakin corona effect lives on at Disney.
So does Disneyland’s Swiss Family Treehouse. Which – after being renamed / rethemed as the Tarzan Treehouse in June of 1999 – will revert to being the Adventureland Treehouse later this year. With a loose retheming that then allows this Disneyland attraction to become home to characters from Disney’s “Swiss Family Robinson,” “Tarzan,” and “Encanto.”
This article is based on research for The Disney Dish Podcast “Episode 412”, published on January 30, 2023. The Disney Dish Podcast is part of the Jim Hill Media Podcast Network.
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